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  Starting a Business in Bangladesh 10 Cool Opportunities.
Posted by: Mdmahabubul Islam Bhuiyan - 02-13-2017, 07:22 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

 
 

Bangladesh happens to be the 8th   most populous country in the world with a population that is well over   160 Million. It is located in the southern eastern part of Asia and is   bordered by Burma, India and Nepal. The capital city and seat of power   of Bangladesh is called Dhaka and its official language is Bengali, with   English also widely spoken in the country. It’s important to state that   Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

 

The   economy of Bangladesh is a progressive one and it is considered to be   among the next eleven emerging economies in the world. It is a fact that   Bangladesh is the birth place of microfinance banking with credit to   the Noble Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus. The economy of Bangladesh   revolves basically around the exportation of textile and garments,   seafood, jute and fish.

 
   
 
 

Agriculture is an important contributor to the economy of Bangladesh and the country is rated as one the largest cultivator and exporter of agriculture products such as; banana, mango, potato, tropical fruits, onion, rice, tea, fish, jute, pineapple amongst others.

 
   
 
 

The   Government of Bangladesh is doing all they can to encourage foreign   investors; hence the establishment of several export processing zones.   If you intend to come into Bangladesh as a social entrepreneur, then you   may be coming into a safer environment because the country has a   vibrant social enterprise sector and it is noted as one of the most   efficient production/manufacturing hub in the world.

 

Now let us run through some of the business opportunities that are available to investors heading to Bangladesh.

 

10 Small Business Investment Opportunities in Bangladesh


 

1. Food Processing Company

 

The   food processing sector in Bangladesh is indeed a thriving industry   simply because of the cheap labor and cheap raw materials that are   available in the country. If you are an accredited investor and are   looking for a place to establish a profitable company, then you should   consider establishing a food processing company in Bangladesh because of   all the positives you stand to gain.

 
   
 
 

2. Rice Farming

 

If   you are game with farming as an investor, then you may want to consider   giving rice farming a shot! Bangladesh is one of the largest producers   and exporter of rice globally and the market is still very much open for   new investors. If you mean serious business, you should not only engage   in rice farming, you should also be involved in rice processing,   bagging and exportation as these are ways to generate more profit.

 

3. Textile and Garment Manufacturing

 

No   doubt Bangladesh is recognized globally as one of the leaders when it   comes to the production of textile and garments. This is so because the   country can boast of cheap and vibrant labor and also cheap raw   materials. Some big – time textile manufacturing companies in developed   countries have their textile and garment factory established in   Bangladesh because of cost effectiveness. So, even if you don’t intend   to live in Bangladesh as an investor, you can consider establishing your   own textile and manufacturing company there and you will be sure to   continue to reap good returns on your investment.

 

4. Open a Micro – Finance Bank

 

Bangladesh   is the birth place of micro financing and if you choose to establish   your own micro – finance bank, then rest assured that you would sure   make profits, because the business concept is well understood and   accepted by its citizens. If you intend establishing your own micro   finance bank in Bangladesh, you would be required to have certain   financial base and pay an amount before you can be granted a license   operate.

 

5. Fruits Plantation

 
 

Bangladesh   is highly suitable for the cultivation of crops such as banana, mango,   tropical fruits, and pineapple amongst others. If you establish your own   fruits plantation, you would not only have to supply to the local   markets but also to international markets. Bangladesh is one of the   largest exporters of tropical fruits simply because it is cheaper   compared to what you can get from other countries.

 

6. Seafood and Fish Business

 

Another   highly thriving business you can establish in Bangladesh is seafood and   fish business. With a population of over 160 million people, you can be   sure of loads of people patronizing you and if you choose to go into   exportation, there will also be a large international market waiting for   you.

 

7. Freight Forwarding Business

 

Most   of the goods produced in Bangladesh are exported to the rest of the   world hence a very thriving Freight forwarding industry. All you would   need to do to enter into this line of business is to register your   company, obtain your operational license from the government, get a good   location for your office and then market your services to companies   that are into the production of goods.

 

8. Tea Production Company

 

The   soil composition and climatic condition in Bangladesh is highly   suitable for the cultivation of tea. So, if you are thinking of a   business to establish in Bangladesh, then you should consider starting   your own tea production company. The good thing about this kind of   business is that you might not only have the over 160 million people in   Bangladesh as your target market, but also the rest of the world. It is a   viable business and you won’t have to struggle to market your tea to   the global market especially if it is well packaged and branded.

 

9. Barbing Salon

 

If   you know how to give a good hair cut and you are looking for a business   that requires low capital to start in Bangladesh, then you should   consider establishing your own barbing salon. All you would need to get   started are; a shop, one or more clippers, a big wall mirror, a small   power generator, supplies of powder, after shaves, amongst others. Once   you rent a shop in any part of town in Bangladesh, you are sure to have   loads of people trooping to your barbing salon even without advert.

 

10. Water Refill Station

 

Good   and portable water is a major requirement by many household and even   offices in Bangladesh. If you are looking towards establishing your own   business in Bangladesh, then you should consider starting a Water Refill   Station. It is indeed a profitable venture.

 

These are some of the   highly profitable and easy to start businesses in Bangladesh. It is   important to point that one of the major challenges entrepreneurs face   in Bangladesh is power; so if you intend establishing your own business   in Bangladesh, then you should create a budget for power generating   sets.

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  10 Small Business ideas & Investment Opportunities in USA 2017
Posted by: ADMIN - 02-13-2017, 04:56 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

Are you resident in the United States of America? Are you interested in doing business in USA? Do you want to know what the best business ideas and investment opportunities in the United States are? Then I advice you read on.

The United States is a highly develop country and it is currently the largest economy in the world. The economy of the United States is a capitalist mixed economy and is mainly private sector driven. The U.S is currently the world largest importer of goods / products and has a high consumer spending rate.
Doing business in the united states is quite advisable and viable given the available human human resources, stable economic and political conditions and the ease of accessing capital.

However, starting a business is always risky regardless of the country you are operating in, especially when the economic trends are unpredictable. This is why you should analyze the market and take a broad view of the factors that shape demand and supply before you start a new business.

Now, the US economy is picking up again, and new trends in lifestyle, business, health, and other aspects of life are opening the doors to new business opportunities. If you are thinking of starting a business in the US, you must consider a business that has future potential, huge demand, and immunity to the adverse effects of recessions. The following are business opportunities in the United States according to the states.


Top 10 Small Business ideas + Investment Opportunities in USA for 2017
1. Online marketing services
Due to the ever-increasing rates at which consumers are now finding and buying products online, businesses are left with no other choice but to set aside a decent fraction of their marketing budget for online marketing. And there’s more than enough proof that many businesses are now making more sales via the internet.
So, you can start a business that helps other businesses establish an online presence and attract customers via the internet. The online marketing industry is growing and it will continue to grow until the internet ceases to exist.

2. Pet care
In 2012, Americans spent over $40 billion dollars on pet care. This industry has enjoyed tremendous growth over the years and the story will most likely remain the same for many years to come. So, if you love pets and have no problem with looking after them, this is a big business opportunity for you. Even if you don’t have a degree in Veterinary Medicine, this shouldn’t deter you, as you can work with someone who has the qualification. In fact, you may not need the qualification, after all.

3. E-commerce
According to Inc.com, the e-commerce industry has been projected to grow at an average annual rate of 8.8% through 2017. This isn’t a surprise, as consumers are feeling more safe and comfortable with buying products and services via the internet.
So, if you are thinking of a good business opportunity to explore, consider launching your own e-commerce store, market your products and services, and watch the sales come. You may need to start small, offering a few products at first and then expand your range of offers. Many big brands started this way.

4. Mobile and social gaming
Unknown to many, this tech-based industry enjoyed a whopping growth rate of 397% between 2007 and 2012. Games have always been part of the average American teenager. So, if you present fun games to them through the media they love (like mobile devices), you will make a lot of money. A couple invented the popular “Temple Run” game, which has now gained global fame. You too can launch your idea if you have one.

5. Full service restaurants
The fact that restaurants employ 10% of the total U.S workforce is a telling proof that the restaurant business is a serious one. It’s a recession-proof business, since people will always eat regardless of what the economy is saying. So, if you have been thinking of launching a new business, consider opening a restaurant. It’s a very profitable business, and it’s very easy to start.

6. Environmental consulting
“Green living” is now one of the most commonly used phrases in the US. More people are getting to understand the harmful effects of combustion fuels and chemicals that are produced in homes and industries.
For this reason, individuals and industries are hiring environment consultants to advise them on how protect their environment by reducing the rate of emission of noxious substances. The environmental consulting business has been projected to increase in revenue by 45% by 2017.

7. Eco-friendly products and services
Another trend with wide impact is the increasing demand for eco-friendly products and services. Not only is this trend increasing the demand for “green” homes and revolutions, but it also drive business-to-business demand for services such as environmental consulting (discussed above) and water conservation.

8. Senior healthcare
Because a huge fraction of the American population is over 60 years in age, there’s an increasing demand for healthcare products and services aimed at seniors. So, if you are operating in the healthcare industry, now is the time to start focusing even more on the seniors.

9. Private security
Due to the increasing crime rates, there’s an equally increasing demand by owners of homes, businesses, and other valuable facilities for private security services. Until the rates of unemployment go down (which is unlikely), crime would continue to be on the increase, just like the demand for security services. So, if you love to protect people and their assets, here’s a business opportunity for you.

10. Transportation and logistics
This is another industry expected to be among the winners over the next five years. Transport services are always in high demand, regardless of the state of the economy. So, this is just another recession-proof business opportunity you can explore if you have what it takes.

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  Business in Africa 1.2 billion opportunities
Posted by: ADMIN - 02-12-2017, 02:38 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

The commodity boom may be over, and barriers to doing business are everywhere. But Africa’s market of 1.2 billion people still holds huge promise.


FOR A LOOK at the African boom at its peak, do as a multitude of foreign investors have done and fly into Abidjan, the capital of Ivory Coast. Visitors arrive in an air-conditioned hall where a French-style café sells beers, snacks and magazines. There is advertising everywhere, for mobile-phone companies, first-class airline tickets and a new Burger King. The taxi into the city smoothly crosses over a six-lane toll bridge. On the way to the Plateau, the city’s commercial core, cranes, new buildings and billboards jostle for space on the skyline. In the lagoon, red earth piles up where yet another new bridge is under construction.

Just five years ago, Ivory Coast seemed like a lost cause. Having been defeated in an election at the end of 2010, the then president, Laurent Gbagbo, refused to leave office. The victorious opposition leader and now president, Alassane Ouattara, mounted a military offensive to force Mr Gbagbo out. French troops seized the airport to evacuate their citizens (the country used to be a French colony). Protesters were gunned down by troops, foreign businesses were looted and human-rights activists gave warning about mass graves being dug.


Ivory Coast still has problems, as shown by a terrorist attack in March that killed 22 people. But its economy is the second-fastest-growing in Africa (after Ethiopia, which is much poorer), expanding by almost 9% per year. Foreign investment is pouring in. As well as the Burger King, Abidjan now has a Carrefour supermarket, a new Heineken brewery, a Paul bakery and plenty of new infrastructure. Sharp-suited, French-educated ministers explain in perfect English what they are doing to “open up”, “improve the ease of doing business” and “sustainably grow the middle class”. Expensive hotels, such as the reopened $300-a-night Ivoire, are booked up; their bars are full of affluent people striking deals. The country’s three port terminals, the biggest of which is being expanded by Bolloré, a French industrial firm, are working at full capacity, importing cars and electronics and exporting cocoa, coffee and cashew nuts.

This is the Africa of business magazines and bank ads: a continent that is rising at a prodigious pace and creating profitable new markets for multinational firms. But Abidjan also has plenty of reminders that it has been here before. For all of the new buildings springing up, its impressive skyline is still dominated by crumbling 1960s and 1970s concrete modernism. The roads may be new, but the orange taxis that ply them are still ancient fume-spewing Toyota Corollas, remnants of an earlier boom. For the two decades after independence from France in 1960, Ivory Coast enjoyed an economic miracle. Then, quite suddenly, the price of cocoa and coffee plunged and the boom faded as quickly as it had begun.

Reasons to worry

The deepest fear of today’s investors in Africa is that it may be happening again. In Ivory Coast’s neighbour, Ghana, thousands of government workers have been marching in the streets in the past few months to protest against their rising cost of living. Ghana relies on oil and gold, both of which have fallen in price, as well as cocoa. That, plus prodigious government borrowing, has caused a crisis. One US dollar now buys 4 cedi, the local currency; in 2012, it bought not quite two. Growth has halved since 2014, and Ghana is running a budget deficit of 9% of GDP and a current-account deficit of 13%.
According to the World Bank, in the year to April last year the terms of trade deteriorated in 36 out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries as the price of their commodity exports fell relative to the cost of their imports, mostly manufactured goods. Those 36 countries account for 80% of the continent’s population and 70% of its GDP. Eight countries, including two giants, Angola and Nigeria, derive more than 90% of their export revenues from oil, which has recently plummeted far below the price needed to draw in new investors. Growth across sub-Saharan Africa dropped to 3.7% in 2015, far below East Asia’s 6.4% and nowhere near enough to create enough jobs for the continent with the world’s youngest and fastest-growing population. The World Bank expects it to tick up again, but only to 4.8% in 2017.
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Countries that happily borrowed from international investors over the past few years have now found themselves shut out of the markets. The stock of outstanding sovereign bonds in the region had risen from less than $1 billion in 2009 to over $18 billion in 2014. If growth continues at a decent clip, that should be manageable. But if it stops, interest rates of 10% or more on dollar-denominated bonds will make refinancing difficult.
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The continent’s two biggest economies, Nigeria and South Africa, are already in deep distress. The reasons are different, but both have suffered from commodity-price falls as well as from atrocious economic management. The IMF, although loathed in much of Africa, is back, providing a $ 1billion loan to Ghana and preparing another for Zambia. Some fear a return to 2000, when this newspaper described Africa as the “hopeless continent”.

Yet despite that, Nairobi’s thriving malls and Abidjan’s humming ports show that there are plenty of reasons to stay optimistic. The economic conditions have got worse, but this is a very different continent from two decades ago, when troops from eight African countries were fighting in Congo alone. Wars still rage in South Sudan, Somalia, Mali and northern Nigeria, and violence bubbles in places like eastern Congo, the Central African Republic and Burundi. But broadly speaking, most of sub-Saharan Africa is now peaceful. Elections seem increasingly less likely to result in strife, even if they still generally return incumbents, and more and more often for unconstitutional third terms. The governments that come to power are still often corrupt and inefficient, but far less brazenly so than those of cold war despots such as Mobutu Sese Seko of Congo or Jean-Bedel Bokassa of the Central African Republic.

Africa’s 1.2 billion people also hold plenty of promise. They are young: south of the Sahara, their median age is below 25 everywhere except in South Africa. They are better educated than ever before: literacy rates among the young now exceed 70% everywhere other than in a band of desert countries across the Sahara. They are richer: in sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of people living on less than $1.90 a day fell from 56% in 1990 to 35% in 2015, according to the World Bank. And diseases that have ravaged life expectancy and productivity are being defeated—gradually for HIV and AIDS, but spectacularly for malaria. Some of the gains may seem modest, but given that living standards across Africa declined during the 30 years after independence they are sufficiently established to prove lasting.

And for all that oil and metals have come to dominate economies such as Nigeria’s and Congo’s, the boom broadened beyond natural resources. Mobile telephones have transformed commerce across Africa, and now smartphones and feature phones (which are halfway between dumb and smart) are taking hold. In 2014, the latest year for which figures are available, 27% of Nigerians owned a smartphone. In many African countries 4G mobile-phone infrastructure is the only thing that works well, but it works at least as well as in much richer countries, and a lot can be built on it. What began with mobile-money systems such as Kenya’s M-Pesa is now branching into bank accounts, savings accounts, loans and insurance. That in turn is helping people rise out of poverty and invest in their future.

This special report will argue that despite some deep and entrenched problems, African businesses offer hope too. It is clearly risky to make sweeping judgments about an entire continent with 54 countries and 2,000 languages. This report draws on visits to various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but four in particular: South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya and Ivory Coast, all coastal, urbanised and relatively rich. They certainly do not represent the whole of Africa, but your correspondent picked them because they each illustrate a different aspect of business across Africa as a whole. The businesses covered have not yet transformed the continent, but they show that African firms are capable of extraordinary innovation—if only they can be set free.

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  Business Opportunity in Bangladesh.
Posted by: ADMIN - 02-09-2017, 07:18 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

“Never before, Bangladesh was so well prepared to absorb talent, technology and investment from outside. Never before the country was so investment hungry as it is today.”

The inflow of foreign direct investment into Bangladesh rose 27.19 percent year-on-year to $1.45 billion in the July-February period, according to central bank data.

[Image: banner-3.png]
Private investment is welcome in all areas of the economy with the exception of the four reserved sectors:
  • Arms and ammunition and other defense equipment and machinery

  • Forest Plantation and mechanized extraction within the bounds of reserved forests

  • Production of Nuclear Energy

  • Security Printing and Mining

Sector based Contribution in the Export of Bangladesh

[Image: BOB-1.jpg]

Potential Investment Sectors in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh, traditionally known for jute and tea exports, has recently attracted attention for readymade garments i.e. woven and knit however fisheries and leather goods are the next largest export sector from Bangladesh. Ship building is also a potential sector for the investment.
Textile:
Bangladesh is best place for investing in textiles and garments industry due to cheap labor and favorable trade status with the EU. Again, Government incentives for the spinning, weaving and knitting industries in the form of cash subsidy of the fabric cost to exporters sourcing fabrics locally. There is huge yarn and fabric demand supply gap in the RMG industries which is presently met by imports. Thus the potential for backward linkage industry is enormous Prospect for a huge textile industry capable to supply over 3 billion yards of fabrics a year to the export oriented garment industry has also been developed by the industry. Presently, about 85%-90% of this demand is met by import from countries like China, India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, etc. Fabric requirement is increasing at 20% per annum. This offers a tremendous opportunity for further investment.
Cost of some key production factors in textile sector:

[Image: BOB-2.jpg]

Other potential investment sectors:
Leather goods, Frozen food, Jute goods, Oil and Gas, Coal, Power, Telecommunication, Air Transportation, Electronics, Light engineering industries, Tourism, Agriculture, Agro based industries, Computer software development, data entry & data processing.
Sanctioning/Registration Authorities
Board of Investment (BoI)
BoI is the sole authority of registration of all industrial projects in the private sector outside the authorities of BSCIC and BEPZA.
Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industries Corporation (BSCIC)
BSCIC is the responsible authority for registration of industrial projects having capital investment not exceeding Tk. 30.00 million (For Build, Management, Reconstruction and Expansion maximum Tk. 45.00 million).

Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority (BEPZA)

In order to stimulate rapid economic growth of the country, particularly through industrialization, the government has adopted an 'Open Door Policy' to attract foreign investment to Bangladesh. The BEPZA is the official organ of the government to promote, attract and facilitate foreign investment in the EPZs.

Export Processing Zone (EPZ)    
EPZs have been created to provide complete infrastructural facilities including communication and utility connection where potential investors would find a congenial investment climate, free from cumbersome procedures. The Bangladesh Private Export Processing Act allows establishment in private EPZs entirely through foreign investment or through joint ventures or local initiative. Followings are the eight EPZs of Bangladesh which are in operation now under BEPZA:

[Image: BOB-3.jpg]

In 2014, these eight EPZ has exported about $42,930.35 million valued goods to abroad and also employed 405,166 people in these zones.
Industries in the EPZs can enjoy financial incentive i.e. tax holiday, Duty free Export & Import, Exemption from Dividend tax, GSP facility, Duty & Quota free access to EU (EBA), Canada, Norway and Australia including non financial incentive like permission for 100% foreign ownership, MFN (Most Favored Nation), No Ceiling on foreign investment, full repatriation of Capital & Dividend, citizenship or resident ship based on the total value of investment and   some other facilities which are not enjoyed by industries outside of EPZs.

Investment Incentives (Major)

Tax holiday
Tax holiday facilities will be available for 5 or 7 years depending on the location of the industrial enterprise. For industrial enterprises located in Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions (excluding Hill Tract districts of Chittagong Division) the tax holiday facility is for 5 years while it is 7 years for locations in Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal, and Rajshahi, Divisions and the 3 Chittagong hill districts.

Tax holiday facilities are provided in accordance with existing laws. The period of tax holiday will be calculated from the month of commencement of commercial production. Tax holiday certificate will be issued by NBR (National Board of Revenue) for the total period within 90 days of submission of application.
Tax Exemptions:
Tax exemptions are allowed in the following cases:
• Tax exemption on royalties, technical know-how fees received by any foreign collaborator, firm, company and expert.
• Exemption of income tax up to 3 years for foreign technicians employed in industries specified in the relevant schedule of the income tax ordinance.
• Tax exemption on income of the private sector power generation company for 15 years from the date of commercial production.
• Tax exemption on capital gains from the transfer of shares of public limited companies listed with a stock exchange.

Duty
No import duty for 100% export oriented RMG industry.
Tax Law
Double taxation can be avoided in case of foreign investors on the basis of bilateral agreements. There is provision for exemption of income tax up to 3 years for the expatriate employees in industries specified in the relevant schedule of Income Tax ordinance.
Remittance
Industries can enjoy the facilities for full repatriation of invested capital, profit and dividend.
Exit:
An investor can wind up on investment either through a decision of the AGM or EGM. Once a foreign investor completes the formalities to exit the country, he or she can repatriate the sales proceeds after securing proper authorization from the Central Bank.
Ownership:
Foreign investor can set up ventures either wholly owned on in joint collaboration with local partner.
Concessionary duty on imported capital machinery:
No import duty is charged in case of capital machinery and spares listed in NBR’s relevant notification. Import duty at 7.5% is secured in the form of a bank guarantee or an indemnity bond to be returned after installation of the machinery.
Incentives to non-resident Bangladeshis:
Special incentives are provied to encouradge non-resident Bangladeshis for investment in the country. They will enjoy facilities similar to those of foreign investors.

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  Business opportunities abound in Asia..
Posted by: ADMIN - 02-09-2017, 06:25 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

Asia is a shining star in the otherwise drab landscape of the economic stalwarts of our recent past. Consider:

  • The region has been resilient through the global financial crisis and has experienced consistent average annual GDP growth rates in the range of 5% to 8%.

  • By 2050, Asia will account for 45% of the estimated world population, an increase of 23% over the region’s population in 2013.
  • Nine of the 10 fastest growing mega-cities in the world are in Asia.

  • 63% of the world’s 440 fastest emerging cities are in this region. This growth will add a billion new consumers and a total purchasing power in excess of $10 trillion to the global economy.

  • Asia will house one of the youngest and largest workforces, numbering around 3 billion and representing 52% of the global workforce. By comparison, North America, South America and Europe combined will account for only 21%.
  • In the 10-year period to 2010, incomes in emerging market countries rose on average by 96% and are forecast to rise 45% further by 2016.

Dwarfed by the size of and focus on China and India, the tiger economies of Southeast Asia have been quietly but unrelentingly gathering economic steam. While Singapore has held a prominent role as a regional hub and gateway into Asia for decades, the remaining countries of the ASEAN 6 have been clawing their way into the competitive global business arena. Singapore, in particular, has positioned itself firmly to create an attractive launch pad for multinational firms seeking proximity to the region from a stable and commercially sophisticated base.

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  E-Commerce or Electronics Commerce ?
Posted by: ADMIN - 02-09-2017, 05:07 PM - Forum: Discussion Board - No Replies

How do people works and change the world. It’s time to revaluation the business and makes destine closer. People are working more than they can think and have no time to pay for any communication delay. That why people search out the fastest way and omit the distance gap. The solution is call Electronics Commerce or E-Commerce.

E-Commerce not only faster but also more transparent and more error free than conventional systems. Where conventional system works manually with killing of times, E-Commerce does it automatically with some clicks and commands in a moment.
When I search about it find out some interesting information and like to shear with you and hop you will feel interest on the system and help you to drive your business to E-Commerce.

E-Commerce or Electronics Commerce business models can generally categorized in following categories.

• Business - to - Business (B2B)
• Business - to - Consumer (B2C)
• Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)
• Consumer - to - Business (C2B)
• Business - to - Government (B2G)
• Government - to - Business (G2B)
• Government - to - Citizen (G2C)


Business - to - Business (B2B)
Website following B2B business model sells its product to an intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final customer. As an example, a wholesaler places an order from a company's website and after receiving the consignment, sells the end product to final customer who comes to buy the product at wholesaler's retail outlet.

Business - to - Consumer (B2C)
Website following B2C business model sells its product directly to a customer. A customer can view products shown on the website of business organization. The customer can choose a product and order the same. Website will send a notification to the business organization via email and organization will dispatch the product/goods to the customer.

Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)
Website following C2C business model helps consumer to sell their assets like residential property, cars, motorcycles etc. or rent a room by publishing their information on the website. Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services. Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website.

Consumer - to - Business (C2B)
In this model, a consumer approaches website showing multiple business organizations for a particular service. Consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to spend for a particular service. For example, comparison of interest rates of personal loan/ car loan provided by various banks via website. Business organization who fulfills the consumer's requirement within specified budget approaches the customer and provides its services.

Business - to - Government (B2G)
B2G model is a variant of B2B model. Such websites are used by government to trade and exchange information with various business organizations. Such websites are accredited by the government and provide a medium to businesses to submit application forms to the government.

Government - to - Business (G2B)
Government uses B2G model website to approach business organizations. Such websites support auctions, tenders and application submission functionalities.

Government - to - Citizen (G2C)
Government uses G2C model website to approach citizen in general. Such websites support auctions of vehicles, machinery or any other material. Such website also provides services like registration for birth, marriage or death certificates. Main objectives of G2C website are to reduce average time for fulfilling people requests for various government services.


If the post helps you it will grateful for me. And hope you will share it with your friends also hope for your creative and helpful post.

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